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Systematic review and Meta-analysis: Clinical, Endoscopic, Histologic and Safety Placebo Rates in Induction and Maintenance trials of Ulcerative Colitis.

TitleSystematic review and Meta-analysis: Clinical, Endoscopic, Histologic and Safety Placebo Rates in Induction and Maintenance trials of Ulcerative Colitis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsSedano R, Hogan M, Nguyen TM, Chang J, Zou GY, Macdonald JK, Casteele NVande, Hanzel J, Crowley E, Battat R, Dulai PS, Singh S, D'Haens G, Sandborn W, Feagan BG, Ma C, Jairath V
JournalJ Crohns Colitis
Date Published2021 Jul 26
ISSN1876-4479
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quantifying placebo rates and the factors influencing them are essential to inform trial design. We provided a contemporary summary of clinical, endoscopic, histologic and safety placebo rates in induction and maintenance clinical trials of ulcerative colitis, and identify factors influencing them.

METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were searched from April-2014 to April-2020, updating a prior meta-analysis that searched from inception to April-2014. We included placebo-controlled trials of aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, small-molecules and biologics in adults with ulcerative colitis. Placebo rates were pooled using random-effects and mixed-effects meta-regression models to assess the associated study-level.

RESULTS: In 119 trials (92 induction, 27 maintenance) clinical, endoscopic, and histological remission placebo rates for induction trials were 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9-13%], 19% (95%CI 15-23%) and 15% (95%CI 11-19%), respectively; for maintenance trials, clinical and endoscopic placebo remission rates were 18% (95%CI 12-25%) and 20% (95%CI 15-25%). Higher endoscopic subscore and a higher rate of exposure to prior biologic therapy at enrolment were associated with lower clinical and endoscopic placebo remission rates. Absence of central reading was associated with an increase in placebo endoscopic response and remission rates. More follow-up visits and increasing trial duration was associated with higher clinical placebo rates.

CONCLUSIONS: Placebo rates in ulcerative colitis trials vary according to the endpoint assessed, whether it is for assessment of response or remission, and whether the trial is designed for induction or maintenance. These contemporary rates across different endpoints and drug classes will help to inform trial design.

DOI10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab135
Alternate JournalJ Crohns Colitis
PubMed ID34309658