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Jill Roberts Center for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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Serum Concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one Are Associated With Bile Acid Diarrhea in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

TitleSerum Concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one Are Associated With Bile Acid Diarrhea in Patients With Crohn's Disease.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBattat R, Duijvestein M, Casteele NVande, Singh S, Dulai PS, Valasek MA, Mimms L, McFarland J, Hester KD, Renshaw M, Jain A, Sandborn WJ, Boland BS
JournalClin Gastroenterol Hepatol
Date Published2018 Nov 15
ISSN1542-7714
Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often have bile acid diarrhea (BAD), due to bile acid malabsorption following ileal resection (IR). Bile acid malabsorption increases production of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a bile acid precursor. We investigated relationships between serum concentrations of C4 and BAD in patients with CD.

METHODS: We collected demographic data, serum samples, and information on the presence of diarrhea (>3 liquid bowel movements/day), as well as clinical, endoscopic, and histologic scores from 26 patients with CD and IR, 21 patients with CD without IR, and 37 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We compared serum concentrations of C4 and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) between groups. We performed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis to identify the optimal cutoff C4 concentrations for the diagnosis of diarrhea attributable to bile acid malabsorption (BAD), defined as diarrhea and a serum concentration of FGF19 <60 pg/mL.

RESULTS: Patients with UC had a median serum C4 concentration of 11.8 ng/mL, whereas patients with CD and IR with ileitis (documented endoscopically) had a median concentration of 100.0 ng/mL (P compared to UC < .0001) and patients with CD and IR without ileitis had a median concentration of 51.6 ng/mL (P compared to UC < .001). Patients with CD without IR did not have a significantly higher median concentration of C4 than patients with UC (P = .71), regardless of ileitis (P = .34). When endoscopic findings were confirmed histologically, similar results were found to analyses using endoscopic findings alone. A higher proportion of patients with active UC had diarrhea (72.0% vs 0 patients with inactive UC; P < .001), but their median concentrations of C4 did not differ significantly from that of patients with inactive UC (12.1 ng/mL vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = .3). A cutoff concentration of C4 of 48.3 ng/mL or greater identified patients with diarrhea attributable to bile acid malabsorption with 90.9% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity, and an AUROC 0.94. A significantly higher proportion of patients with concentrations of C4 above this cutoff had BAD (50.0%) than below this cutoff (1.8%) (P < .001). When we analyzed only patients with diarrhea, a C4 cutoff of 48.3 ng/mL identified those with low FGF19 concentrations (<60 pg/mL) with 91% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity (AUROC, 0.99). Above this cutoff, 83.3% of patients had a serum concentration of FGF19 <60 pg/mL compared to 4.5% below this threshold (P < .0001). C4 concentrations correlated with the number of daily bowel movements (r = 0.41; P = .004) and correlated inversely with FGF19 concentrations (r = -0.72; P<.0001).

CONCLUSION: We observed significantly increased serum concentrations of C4 in patients with CD with IR, compared to patients with UC. A cutoff concentration of C4 above 48.3 ng/mL identifies patients with diarrhea likely attributable to bile acid malabsorption (BAD) with an AUROC value of 0.94. Increased serum levels of bile acid precursors identify patients with diarrhea and a low serum concentration of FGF19, and concentrations of C4 correlate with daily liquid bowel movements and correlate inversely with FGF19 concentrations. C4 may be a biomarker to identify patients with diarrhea attributable to bile acid malabsorption.

DOI10.1016/j.cgh.2018.11.012
Alternate JournalClin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PubMed ID30448597
PubMed Central IDPMC6520204
Grant ListKL2 TR001444 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States