|Title||Crohn's Disease: Evolution, Epigenetics, and the Emerging Role of Microbiome-Targeted Therapies.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||DeFilippis EM, Longman R, Harbus M, Dannenberg K, Scherl EJ|
|Journal||Curr Gastroenterol Rep|
|Date Published||2016 Mar|
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, systemic, immune-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Originally described in 1932 as non-caseating granulomatous inflammation limited to the terminal ileum, it is now recognized as an expanding group of heterogeneous diseases defined by intestinal location, extent, behavior, and systemic extraintestinal manifestations. Joint diseases, including inflammatory spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, are the most common extraintestinal manifestations of CD and share more genetic susceptibility loci than any other inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) trait. The high frequency and overlap with genes associated with infectious diseases, specifically Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD), suggest that CD may represent an evolutionary adaptation to environmental microbes. Elucidating the diversity of the enteric microbiota and the protean mucosal immune responses in individuals may personalize microbiome-targeted therapies and molecular classifications of CD. This review will focus on CD's natural history and therapies in the context of epigenetics, immunogenetics, and the microbiome.
|Alternate Journal||Curr Gastroenterol Rep|